Dissertation, Dr. Carl E. Baugh, Volume IIpg 177
Godfrey is a recognized anatomist and observes: "...contact is always made by the heel (which strikes the substrate first in normal walking), the outside of the foot, the ball of the foot (the pad under the far or 'distal' ends of the bones called 'metatarsals'), and the big toe or 'hallux'. 'Heel strike" first, followed by 'midstance" (when the weight is transferred along the outside of the ball of the foot as the pelvic muscles contract to shift the weight of the body over the supporting leg), and finally 'push-off' or 'toe-offb (when a person propels himself or herself forward by pushing against the substrate with the big toe). Even on a hard surface, one can see the imprint made by the heel, the outside of the foot, the ball, and the big toe. The little toes typically leave only slight marks on a hard floor, not merely because the pads of the little toes are smaller than the pad of the big toe but because they do not bear the weight of the body during push-off." 40
Godfrey refers to formulae based on Napier, Grieve, and Gear (See appendage C). In giving indices calculated for "mantracks" and genuine human tracks she relates the results of Homo sapiens from the Width/Length Index (forefoot x 100/max. length) and the Heel W./Total Length Index (heel width x 100/max. length).
Using tracks from Male 1-3, Female 1-3, and a Neanderthal cave track the W/L Index ranged from 34.8 to 43.5, and the HW/TL Index ranged from 24.8 to 30.6. These calculations were after Nanier (1973).
Indices calculated for the footprints originally excavated by our team compare favorably with the standards expressed in the published literature:
|TRACK||WIDTH/LENGTH INDEX||HEEL W./TOT. L INDEX|
Field studies which confirm Godfrey and specify the variables which she and others have not addressed will now be illustrated in photographic documentation. In turn actual Cretaceous human footprints will be analyzed.