In Part I some - not all - philosophical positions and conclusions were investigated. It was shown that the weight of evidence is that man's role on earth came down to either some form of evolution or some form of creation. It was further demonstrated that the academic weight of evidence is in favor of creation. Consistent with the purposes of this dissertation it is important to note that the concept of creation holds specific tenets. As they relate to the information contained in Part II, some of these tenets may be expressed as follows:
The hypothesis of Part II of this paper is that humans and dinosaurs were contemporaneous and that extensive original excavations have verified that fact. Documentation of excavations in process will be offered in academic support of this thesis. Further evidence of human fossil remains will be presented to substantiate the co-existence of man and dinosaur. The basis for a replacement model to the evolutionary paradigm will be suggested. In the original excavations performed in support of this paper the expected and variant features of human locomotion have been observed and documented. Predictions have been made and substantiated among footprints of various sizes. These will be examined in detail in the course of this dissertation.
Before we present the relevant technical and scientific data it is appropriate to lay the foundation by presenting field sketches of the area and a popularized survey of the excavations at the Paluxy River near Glen Rose, Texas. After the field sketches we shall present material from the book Dinosaur, authored by this researcher and published in 1987. Any necessary references have been added numerically for academic purposes of this dissertation.
The following page designates specific locations which are vital to the academic defense of this work. Dinosaur Valley State Park, an internationally known paleontological site, is indicated with elevations and topographical contours in proximity to the main sites referenced in this work. Co-ordinates for the nearby town of Glen Rose, Texas are given. Viewed from top to bottom, the principal locations of importance are:
This page is an illustrated index to images of hand-drawn field notes taken from files on the McFall I excavation site.
Original Pages 147-149
Original Pages 150-152
Original Pages 153-155
Original Pages 156-157
The following nineteen pages of text were published in Dinosaur by this author. This running narrative is included here in its "popular" form because of the wide popular interest in the Glen Rose excavations.
Researcher's Note: It is of interest to emphasize Dr. Hinderliter's comment that he judges "the finding of human and dinosaur footprints together to be unsurpassed in significance in all the history of archaeological excavations relating to origins."
Let us consider one or the ledges we excavated. It is cretaceous limestone, dated by the University of Texas at 108 million years. We excavated it during 1982 and, in addition to the human footprints, we found other evidences of recency. Here was carbonized material -burned plant residue of modern kind. the limestone is younger than that plant from long ago - probably only minutes or hours younger - for that burned plant had to be burned in the middle of the limestone as it was being formed.
Our major excavation was in the Paluxy River area, four miles out of the little town of Glen Rose, Texas. Thousands of tourists visit this area every year, primarily to see the local state park where evidence has been brought together to show that more than a dozen different types of dinosaurs roamed these Cretaceous beds at some time in the past.
The intrigue and the mystery of this whole area has been enhanced by the many reports of human tracks, as well as dinosaur tracks, found in the strata in the area of this riverbed for more than fifty years. An eighty-nine year old local resident, Emmett McFall, was ever ready to show pictures and recount discoveries of both human-like tracks and dinosaur footprints. So it was on Mr. McFall's farm that our first preliminary excavation began on Monday, March 15, 1982.
It should be stressed that there is considerable evidence to show that dinosaurs and human footprints have been found together by earlier excavators. One of them was Dr. Roland T. Bird2 from Harvard University and the American Museum of Natural History, at that time a leading geologist and paleontologist. He reported that a ledge of limestone had been ripped up in the Paluxy River area by a spring flash flood. In one of his sketches he revealed that tracks were taken and put on display at the American Museum of Natural History, at Southern Methodist University, at the University of Texas, at Baylor University, and at Brookland College. At the top of the sketch a series of human-like tracks can be seen, including a notation by Dr. Bird himself, "Single giant track to American Museum of Natural History." Thus we find that his drawings indicate there had been earlier findings similar to those we have made in our present excavations. This has been confirmed by taped interviews with local Glen Rose residents. Charlie Moss3 found the first human tracks in the Paluxy riverbed in 1910. Earnest "Bull" Adams4 followed this trail of tracks and documented their existence. Jim Ryals5 and Emmitt McFall6 found other footprints through the years. Geologist Clifford Burdick, Ph.D.7, verified these human tracks in the 1940's. Dr. Cecil Daugherty8 led large groups to the prints for years. Stan Taylor 9, Mike Turnage10, Fred Beierle11, Wilbur Fields12, and John Morris, Ph.D.13, added their own documentation.
The Tracks of a Sick Dolphin?
Looking for alternative explanations, one biologist suggested that a dolphin had been sick, had swum in that area, carved out a track - and another and kept it up - for a series of twenty-one steps. I and my colleagues believe that such an hypothesis is clearly preposterous. It would require a greater miracle for a dolphin to have that ability - it is simpler to accept the facts as they are, and to recognize that these are human footprints - toes and all.
Why have our findings had such a staggering impact? Why has the international press recognized it and given such attention to the findings? Why have there been dozens of news interviews? Why has not the academic community given an adequate rebuttal to the findings? The pointers to the sensational reality of our finds are clear. The only highly publicized "disclaimer" came from a disgruntled local resident whose arguments were discounted by local residents of very good standing.
Robert Summers, the famous sculptor and artist, was one who stood with us. (He sculpted the 9-foot statue of John Wayne now at the entrance to John Wayne International Airport.) Robert and his family excavated alongside me, and as a local resident Robert has testified clearly to the genuineness of our finds. He helped uncover both the first and second dinosaurs we found. Famed evolutionist Stephen J. Gould came to Glen Rose to view our evidences. Robert's son, Temple, showed Dr. Gould through our museum, and, pointing to a cast of one of our human footprints, said, 'I know this is genuine, because I helped to excavate it!'
Our dig was undertaken at points approximately 10 feet above the average level of the other footprint layers. The first real excitement came on Tuesday, March 16th, when we found a clearly defined human track among nineteen dinosaur tracks - this human footprint was only 18½ inches from the nearest dinosaur impression. This was found underneath a layer of limestone twelve inches thick. So that the evidence would be indisputable, we documented everything we excavated. (see photo pages 190-192)
A Human Footprint Under a Dinosaur Print
Tnen we found another human track, this time underneath a dinosaur footprint. The human toes were protruding beyond the dinosaur print that had actually landed on top of the human print. The details of the human toes could be clearly traced.
The results were all we had hoped for. By Wednesday night we had uncovered four human footprints among twenty-three dinosaur tracks. Some to the dinosaur and human tracks were within inches of each other.14
The first new convert was Rev. Ronald Jenkins15 himself. Remember, he had insisted that these were "Chicken-Saur" prints - and that talk about dinosaurs was nonsense. He thought that in the depression years local residents had chopped the shapes of dinosaur footprints into the stone, then sold them at outlandish prices.16 Now he had seen with his own eyes. These were recovered under a twelve-inch layer of solid limestone. There was no way they could have been faked. The Press was soon on the scene interviewing various members of our team.
A protessor of geology from Oklahoma State University had now arrived in Glen Rose, and he assured the Press that this was the best spot on earth to show human and dinosaur tracks together in the same Cretaceous limestone strata.
He stated in fact that the Paluxy River evidence destroyed 20% of the supposed geological evolutionary record because it by-passed 110 million years of hypothesized time in the evolutionary scale, the so-called "geological column."
That evening (March 17th, 1982) Mike Schneider18 of Channel 5 in Dallas, Texas, stated in his telecast, "Evolution is being challenged tonight by some fossils that have been found along the Paluxy River near Glen Rose, Texas. An archaeological dig has unearthed evidence of the footprints of a dinosaur and a man side by side...and that's what this team of archaeologists was hoping to find, digging into the layers of clay along the river. But they also unearthed what may be a major discovery -- the footprints of a Tyrannosaurus-type dinosaur next to the footprint of a man."
We were concerned about fraud, because of charges about 'fake' dinosaur and human footprints found together some fifty years ago. With this in mind, the Press interviewed Professor Charles Finsley, Ph.D., of the Dallas Museum of Natural History. He discounted the evidence, but he also stated, "Paleontologists have no personal stake in ignoring clear evidence that man and dinosaurs lived at the same time. That would be considered such a stupendous discovery that no one's philosophical orientation could keep them from proclaiming."
Nevertheless, Professor Finsley did not visit the site. Public invitations had been sent out to academic institutions throughout the English-speaking world to examine what had been found. Few scientists accepted the invitation; perhaps many of them were already persuaded that the issue was closed. Others might have been influenced by the well-known fact that there had been a small number of fakes produced in the depression years of the 1930'S. And, of course, many would not want to be identified in any way with anything that appeared to support creationism. Unfortunately, many who have spoken out against the tracks have never seen them, or have only seen them at a much later time when erosion had greatly reduced the clarity of the human toe impressions. Nevertheless, it was widely recognized that our excavations were important.l9
As a result of our find there was considerable press coverage, including front page articles in newspapers across the nation, and internationally. There were headlines such as, "Creationists say tracks tread on evolution." "Unparalleled historical significance"21--"Evidence cannot be ignored."22 "Clear evidence they existed at the same time."23 There were also many television and radio reports, with on-the-spot interviews. In addition, creation publications gave splendid coverage to the finds.
My resolve was that I would continue digging under the same limestone rock. The pattern of left-right, left-right stride had already been established at 42-44 inch intervals. I would invite the media to actually watch dinosaur and human tracks being unearthed. There could then be no argument as to the genuineness of those dinosaur tracks. In addition, I would invite scholars with unquestionable qualifications to participate in the excavation.
I knew I must arrange another dig that would be taken seriously. The evidence uncovered in March was sensational, but that was not enough.. After all, others had found dinosaur tracks - the nearby reserve had actually been renamed Dinosaur Valley State Park. Weathered dinosaur tracks could be seen in great numbers all around the area.
As for "giant human footsteps," others had argued for their genuineness. No other creature on earth leaves human footprints. Some had suggested that a gorilla or an orangutan might have made the prints, for they too walked upright. But they have toes like fingers, with a great toe very much like a human thumb.
What about these being prints of giants? Such skeletons had been found in other places - giant footsteps were a very real possibility. One skeleton found in Italy had measured over 11 feet in length. (See photo page 317)
Giant lizards - dinosaurs - would themselves have been laughed out of court in times gone by, but they are now accepted without question.24 The Bible said there were giants in the earth in ancient times25 and giants there were, as well as huge lizards. Another point is that paleontologists often report giant-size specimens, several times larger than these modern counterparts.26 Why not the same with humans?
Let the Media See a Print Uncovered
I realize that there was one way to ensure that the evidence would have to be accepted - invite the media to be present when dinosaur and human tracks were found together. Let the T.V. stations send out their reporters, complete with video-cameras. Let them see the impossibility of faking dinosaur and human tracks that had lain for thousands of years under a thick covering of limestone. Invitations to the media went out, and though many ignored the invitation, many others showed up.
There was a risk that had to be taken. What if no dinosaur or human tracks were found while the press was looking? But I was confident. This was no trumped-up case, nor a hit-or-miss operation. The dinosaur tracks had already been found. The evidence of the weathered tracks, known for years, was clear they could be traced for considerable distances. So remove the limestone, and more of the trail would be uncovered. The job was to publicize the whole matter in such a way that both the media and the academic community would have to listen.
Meanwhile, back in Australia, Dr. Clifford Wilson became convinced that I was really serious about his joining me in this effort. I know him as a scholar, one who had been prepared to accept convincing evidence for some facts of creation even though it meant abandoning some views he had publicly held. I had heard him lecture, and knew he had outstanding academic qualifications.
So my friend Dr. Clifford Wilson, former Director of the Australian Institute of Archaeology and at onetime an area supervisor of a dig in Israel conducted by the American Schools of Oriental Research, was invited to be associate director of a dig to be conducted at Glen Rose, Texas, in June 1982.
We negotiated, and soon he was on his way from the middle of winter "down under" to the very hot summer of Glen Rose, Texas. Geologist Carrol Staton was another. Men with recognized credentials would add to the credibility of the work. I tool Dr. Wilson to the actual location, and we examined the two sites I had already selected as the most likely to find the evidence we required before Wednesday. The first site (Locus A) was where we had already uncovered a dinosaur trail several weeks previously. The other was about 70 yards to the north, both being in the limestone alongside the Paluxy River.
The preparation for this second dig was necessarily very much more detailed than for the preliminary project. The arrangements with Emmett McFall had been formalized for a longer period - I recognized that a long-range plan was called for, and I had entered into a three-year lease for that part of the property where we had started to dig. McFall himself was quite happy about it - he had no other plans for this bare outcrop of rock alongside the river.
In checking out the site in good time for the announced commencement date of June 14th, it was found that a local flood - common in the area - had seriously damaged many of the tracks uncovered three months previously. Locals tell you that if it starts to rain heavily, you should get out fast. The river can rise several feet in just a few hours.
After discussion and assessment on site, we decided that for the June project it would be best to dig channels crossgrain to the river flow. This would serve two purposes. First, it would to a great extent prevent flood damage, and secondly it would remove the surface water that kept seeping down from the hillside. This seepage was quite a problem - it was found to fill a new track in just three minutes.
The ledge under which the prints had been found in March, 1982, was where we were to start digging. The first part of the dig was to continue removing sections of that ledge, intending to further trace the trail already disclosed in March.
Verification by educator Clifford Wilson, Ph.D.
RESEARCHER'S NOTE The following was written by Dr. Clifford Wilson as Associate Director of the excavation in June 1982, and included in Dinosaur with his permission. Dr. Wilson was in charge of the excavation at Locus B, with this researcher (Baugh) supervising the work at Locus A. Text by Dr. Wilson:
In some ways this important project was not easy for me - partly because my major research interest was Biblical Archaeology which has more to say about later areas of history. However, my training was sufficient for me to objectively consider the new evidence unfolding before me. I knew I must face the conclusions squarely, whatever they were.
It was some time before we were successful at Locus B, for possibly our ancient dinosaur had slightly changed his direction. But then our carefulness was rewarded. At last I felt the clay crumble slightly as I scraped my trowel across the surface, and soon I had removed the intruding clay to reveal a typical Tyrannosaurus Rex-type footprint. During the morning we found some five of these tracks, and again the leftright, left-right pattern was maintained, at equal distances apart, as in Locus A.
But the best was found soon after we unearthed that first dinosaur print. I moved my trowel carefully as I scraped the nearby surface - and then I struck the proverbial 'gold'.
Only seven and one half inches from the dinosaur print, near to the river, I again felt the clay slightly crack as I probed firmly with my trowel. [ penetrated this intrusive material and gently removed it, scraping until [ was up against solid limestone itself. Now we could clearly see a perfectly formed humanoid footprint. I knew that no other being could Leave a footprint like a human's, and I was confident that I had in fact uncovered a long-hidden man's footprint. Even the toe-prints could be counted, and the shape of the heel was clearly defined. (see photo pages 155 & 322)
One of our volunteer workers was 6 feet 4 inches in height, with very large feet. We photographed his foot in the newly recovered print, md there was still about four inches beyond his heel to the indentation made by the heel of this other man from long ago. We could feel the imprint of the five toes, and of the man's instep, and of his heel.
We point out that this human footprint was at the same level as those of dinosaurs. They were contemporary, and not separated by one hundred million years or more. They were moving together, probably loing their best to escape the terrifying catastrophe all around them. they were quite clearly at the same level, and in fact had traversed the fast settling rock surface on the same day? End of narrative by Dr. Clifford Wilson)
The Press was on hand to view every step of the procedure, and the evidence was too clear to ignore. On Tuesday evening, June 17, 1982, the Fort Worth Star-Telegram ran a front page picture article with text that extended into the second page. The article began, "Slender, human-like imprints being excavated beside dinosaur tracks in the limestone of the Paluxy River bottom are fueling the fires of anti-evolutionists and reviving stories that area residents say have been common knowledge for more than forty years...At the upper end of the print(s) are rounded indentations that Baugh said are from toes...He invited representatives from the news media to watch...more prints being uncovered."
Not one single press agency which viewed the procedures reported that we were doing less than excavating "slender human-like imprints...with rounded indentations at the upper end."
The series of 16 inch human footprints continued for twelve successive left, right steps. Each print was consistently spaced an average of 43½ inches apart. Eight separate press agencies were on premise during one single day.. Not one single eyewitness press agent reported that our discoveries were less than what we claimed.
Many Points of Veriffcation
In Tracking These Incredible Dinosaurs Dr. John Morris27 suggests at least a dozen points of interest and verification relating to human prints in the earth's strata. He discusses the mud up-push around the print as the footprint displaced the layer into which it was forced. There are pressure striations - as the prints are made, pressure laminations. This material crystallizes, and after the prints are found it is often possible to see them in this crystallized pattern. Thirdly, there is the sequence of prints, one footprint after the other. Fourthly, there is the constant stride, and, fifthly, it will be in a left-right, left-right pattern. Next there is the directional trend, also the actual size of the individual prints and of the pace between the prints. Additionally the general impression left by a bare-foot human imprint which is not matched by the imprint of any other creature. This can be seen by examining the ball of the human foot, the heel, the arch, the big toe, the toe line, the toe markings, individual toe depressions, and toe ridges.
We would add, because of our in situ excavations, five additional points of scientific verification. These have been gleaned from studies in anthropology. We have found that sometimes there is a slide-in effect as the human footprints are made, and a deeper impression in the heel area. This has been verified again and again, and is consistent anthropologically with the steps of human beings.
In addition, the big toe impression is not only clear but it is quite distinctive, and deeper. It involves a point of agility and balance as used by man. There is also a deep impression left on the ground as the foot leaves the ground in anticipation of the next step. There is a deep impression in the ball area, and on the outside of the foot, made by the pushing tendency in the stride of man. Finally, the four smaller toes tend to curl in the forward spring of human locomotion.
The Imprint of a Human Hand
ln the continuing sequence at Locus A on the Paluxy River, (see photo page 321), we found a remarkable combination: dinosaur footprints and human footprints at the same level, along with an impression left by a human hand - a right hand.28 This is an unusual sequence in the midst of a series of human steps it is, in fact, a double impression, with the pushing of the toe marks down through the extended footprint itself. There is also an impression of the left foot, to the left and slightly ahead. In addition there is a left scoop mark, and then the placement of the right hand print can be seen.
As we examined these prints carefully, the pattern was clear. In the right foot impression there is a large toe print, then there are the second, third, fourth and little toes. There is a distinctive ridge on the right side. We can trace the ball of the foot, the arch, and the original elongation. Then it would seem that the individual drew his foot back and pushed it down within its own print. We can actually see the ridge marks of all five toes, from the large toe all the way to the little toes, with this pushing effect. This person was apparently in a semi-kneeling position. The right handprint is in the expected position in relation to the left footprint, and there is also what appears to be a scoop mark make by the left hand. The imprint even seems to define the contour of the metatarsal arch as the heel was relieved out of the depression!
As we examine the handprint, the evidence of human involvement is clear. The impressions of the thumb and all four finger points can be traced. Geo-Physicist John DeVilbis, Ph.D., examined this at first hand at Pittsburgh, and he wrote: "The handprint, found alongside some human footprints, is conclusive evidence that the footprints are indeed human."
The crew from Channel 40 in Pittsburgh showed a lively interest in this excavation. They concurred that the evidence was that of human footprints. As we excavated they photographed the human footprints, seeing the evidence before it was affected by the exposure to atmospheric conditions. (We knew by experience that this exposure would soon obliterate some to the precise nature of our find. This is due to calcium carbonate constituency in the limestone. Upon exposure to atmospheric moisture, carbonic acid is formed and leaches into the stone. A clay substance (ilite) in the stone dissolves quite readily, leaving damaged results.)
This is how the Fort Worth Star-Telegram of June 17, 1982, reported our project at that point in time:
"Earlier this Week, Baugh and Jenkins brought in their own specialists - Dr. Clifford Wilson, an archaeologist from Melbourne, Australia, and Carroll Staton, a Dallas petroleum engineer..."
(Wilson had been an Area Supervisor in lsrael with the prestigious American Schools of Oriental Research, and Carroll Staton was principal geologist of a Dallas-based oil company.)
The presence of these two men added considerably to the favorable reception of our findings. Carroll Staton was able to give authoritative answers to questions demanding geological expertise. Likewise Wilson was able to silence the criticism that "a bunch of amateurs could not really be taken seriously in areas of science."
Wilson responded to one such comment, "If these findings were not related to the Bible, no one would think of challenging them. The excavation has been conducted properly, and the conclusions should be taken on their merits." He acknowledged that he had come with an open mind, not sure that human and dinosaur footprints were to be found in the same stratum. The evidence had convinced him - he had dug out dinosaur prints alongside a clearly defined human footprint, which he personally uncovered.
Additional Positive Response
Another interview was with Geologist Billy Caldwell, whom local students and Professors regard highly. He stated that the footprints now being found were certainly out of place, geologically speaking. He further stated he was not sure what all this was telling us - that probably it touched many mysteries concerning the flood. He commented, "God has all the answers and we have barely touched the whole subject. It is all very interesting, and as we see more and more of what is being found it is both revealing, and it is amazing."
Mr. Caldwell was asked, "You feel that both the dinosaur and human tracks are genuine, and are found together?" "There is no doubt in my mind that the man-tracks were made by man. I actually saw one in the rock - and it was taken out of the Paluxy River. It was a large piece that was four feet wide and five inches thick - it was dark grey Cretaceous limestone. This track was in a chunk of that limestone."
Mr. Caldwell was able to show an actual casting he had made from that footprint, and the question was then asked, "As a geologist you affirm that the stone in which you saw the original print was genuine stone, and was Cretaceous, according to your knowledge?" "Without any doubt whatsoever. It was solidified, hard, Cretaceous limestone. Geologically speaking it is 100 to 135 million years old - geologically speaking."
"It was found adjacent to dinosaur tracks in the same Cretaceous layer is that right?" "Several tracks similar to this - that we came to years later - were 18 inches from dinosaur tracks." Dr. Wilson had a further talk with Billy Caldwell. He lives in Fort Worth, Texas, and is an independent geologist in Texas. He is a certified Petroleum Geologist for the American Association of Petroleum Geologists (Certificate No. 24761). For thirteen years he has taught college courses in Historical Geology.
He again stated, "I saw the footprint in Cretaceous rock. A friend of mine (Bill Osborne) brought it out from the Paluxy River - what we had was a total ledge. It was just a perfect print, like others that have been found." He confirmed that tracks he had seen at a later time had a left-right-left-right pattern as though one person was making them.
Back to the "Caldwell Cast." He recognized that a cast should be made, and so both positive and negative casts were made. The positive cast shows what the foot would be like from underneath: the negative of that cast then gives the impression of the footprint in the rock. That is the impression of which a photograph is reproduced in this work. (See photo page 323)
Mr. Caldwell continued, "There is no doubt at all about the ledge or the print. The ledge itself was full of Cretaceous fossils. It was about four feet by four feet, and weighed about 400 pounds or more. There is no doubt it was Cretaceous rock - it was the same all around it." He further commented that he had heard of many of these human footprints before this one was found. He further explained that once prints are uncovered, they deteriorate quickly because of the effect of carbonic acid which "eats them alive." There is also the serious problem of water damage.
Incidentally, Glen Rose Postmaster Grover Gibbs testifies that he saw the original Osborne track in the Cretaceous limestone the very day it was excavated. Bill Osborne and his helpers verified to Mr. Gibbs at that time the genuine excavation which took place earlier that day.29
We received a remarkable letter from Hilton Hinderliter, Ph.D., of Penn State University. His complete letter is reproduced because of its special relevance. (See photo pages 194 and 216)
August 24, 1982
I would like to make known my observations concerning the archaeological excavation being done by Dr. Carl Baugh's team, on the Emmett MeFall property, which borders the Paluxy River, near Glen Rose, Texas. Over the past few years I have read reports of a number of researehers finding human footprints together with dinosaur footprints in the rocks of the Paluxy River. Due to the number of such claims, I had suspected that at least some of them might be true. However, I wanted to see the evidence for myself. When I met Dr. Baugh several weeks ago, my motivation was increased, since my sehedule allowed me to be present during the excavations planned for August 16-20. In going, my attitude was not one of a determination to find both kinds of prints together, instead I was objectively questioning what really was there. Dr. Baugh can perhaps recall that - after hearing his report of the findings - I said that I wanted to see the prints for myself, before reaching any conclusions. And for background I might add this: Over the years I have encountered evidence from various areas that contradicts evolutionary theories, and I have spoken to various audiences on the subject. Since the Paluxy tracks constituted a major area of study in this category, I wanted some first-hand information, so I could know what could accurately be said about it (in my presentations).
Before I relate what I found at the Baugh site this past week, there is a related point worthy of mention. Some recent reports of the Paluxy tracks have made the excuse that the human footprints had been carved. But I know that this statement must have originated from one who was either woefully ignorant of Baugh's work, or one wishing to use deceit for the sake of discrediting the recent finds (which have gained considerable publicity). Even the work done years ago near Glen Rose had uncovered human tracks beneath in situ formations. Even though certain individuals did carve out tracks to sell, it is absurd to claim that all human tracks found in the Paluxy were carved. That would be like saying that beeause the Piltdown jaw was a forgery, all other fossil jaws ever found were also deliberate fakes. Indeed, if the tracks at the Baugh site were carved, then it must have been dinosaurs that carved them!!... for they are covered by an undisturbed layer of limestone over a foot thick, on the upper surface of which are also clear dinosaur tracks.
In my opinion, then, the only honest escape that could be made from the results of Baugh's work would be the argument that the impressions being reported as human tracks were not really that, but instead the result of wishful thinking...spurious markings, eroded dinosaur tail drags, etc. Earlier analyses of tracks found in the river bed have been considered such things, and still concluded that some of the tracks were of human origin. But what of the Baugh tracks? Did they exist only in the minds of excavators? That was the primary question that led me to Texas, in spite of poisonous snakes and the 100° temperatures. Others had observed the tracks, and likely their conelusions will become available to the public. But still I was not satisfied to take someone else's word for it. I wanted to see them myself, and make up my own mind.
Well, I did get to see them for myself- not only tracks which had been found months before, but also new ones which were found while I was there...better yet, ones which I found personally. I have come to the conclusion that they are genuine...that they really were made by people who lived at the same time as the dinosaurs. My reasons are as follows: First, it is widely accepted that the Paluxy River exhibits many dinosaur prints (a nearby area was made a state park for that very reason). So there seems to be no contention over the dinosaur prints; the dispute is over the human tracks. The size of the latter (being 16" long, with an average stride of 45") had been ridiculed by opponents, as though a man 8½ feet tall could never have existed. However, I am one who knows that fossil finds have shown that larger animals of many types have lived in the past - considerably larger than their modern descendants. Also, the skeleton of a woman 7 feet tall was found in a cave less than 20 miles from the footprint location.30 So I see no reason why the dimensions of the tracks should rule out the possibility of their being made by human beings. In excavated tracks (personally) I found that there were definite impressions that followed consistent patterns, and with consistent dimensions. These were further identified by "up-push" ridging around their perimeters. And nd with the shape and proportions of human feet, there were toe impressions. While there were some spurious patterns (most notieeable being the fossilized worm burrows), I considered the chances of spurious marks lining up in rows of one big, and four small toes, at the proper ends of the elongated depressions, and in the right, left, right...reversed alignment of footprints. I decided that the chances of spurious marks just happening to fit these patterning were nil. And I would like to describe in detail the discovery of the last human print I found at site A (on Friday, August 20). Two days earlier two human prints were found (in stride). Then on Thursday a new area was opened - one that was a high priority, since deep prints has been found next to it. But little was found there. I heard Dr. Baugh (working on my right) say that he found a depression which he speculated was a dinosaur track. But rather than take the time to clean out a dinosaur print (of which many had already been found there), we moved ahead to search for human prints. On Friday morning, before the others came to resume work on the next sections, I looked over the site again. The print (passed over as a dinosaur print) was elongated, and it fit in with the stride pattern of the two prints found on Wednesday - and also with prints found months before. Stooping down to study the details of this print, I found definite toe impressions in it, and its length was the same 16" as the others. It turned out to be the deepest of the human tracks found that week (being 1½ deep at the ball of the foot). The point is that the recognition that this was a human print came as a surprise to everyone. So it could not possibly be attributed to anticipation - as though an excavator meagured out to where he thought the next track should be, then interpreted spurious marks he found there to be a footprint. As a matter of fact, for the tracks that I excavated it so happened that the compacted clay (in the layer on top of the print layer) lifted off in horizontal slabs, under which were seen the footprint characteristics - even before detail work was done to clean out the toes, etc.
After having studied somewhat of the history of science, and having some direct expenence with the reaction of the "scientific community" to discoveries which challenge the current dogma of science, I can only predict that the recent discoveries at the Baugh site will be scorned, ridiculed, and ignored by the scientific authorities. Only a few open-minded individuals will give this evidence fair consideration. Whether any of those might attempt to re-work the geologic timetable so as to reconcile it with the coexistence of men and dinosaurs - this remains to be seen. I doubt that any major revision to the geologic ages will be acknowledged by the majority of present-day scientists, because such an acknowledgement would only enhance the credibility problem which evolution already has (in the public's eye). I would have to say that the belief in evolution is in a state of terminal illness. But its death will only be admitted by a new generation of scientists whose minds have not been prejudiced by the type of education now prevalent in the nation's public schools - an education which starts with the belief that evolution has happened, which interprets all evidence according to that faith, and which simply discards any evidence which cannot be fitted into the evolutionary framework. Hilton Hinderliter, PhD.
Penn State University
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The excavations progressed slowly, deliberately, and with increasing professionalism. We were developing an excavation technique using hydraulic equipment and soft wooden instruments untried by both archaeology and paleontology. The procedure and analysis included both areas of scientific discipline in its methodology, and it actually blended the fossil record (paleontology) with evidence of human occupation (archaeology). Increasingly, the evidence focused on paleoanthropology - the fossil evidence of ancient man. Only, this evidence was not so ancient! Yet this evidence of human presence was found in context normally interpreted to be extremely ancient - involving philosophic interpretations of life origins. Press reports and speaking appointments attracted interest from international quarters. Hugh Miller31 of Columbus, Ohio even sent a supporting letter to the Vatican. Hugh is a professional chemist formerly on the scientific staff of the prestigious Battelle Institute of Columbus, Ohio. This was the scientific research center chosen to analyze the moonstones brought back by Apollo 11 crewman.
Hugh decided that he wanted to personally verify our bold claims. He and a small group from Columbus arrived on a hot Texas summer day in July 1983. The delicate frame of this scientific investigator from Columbus was soon laboriously involved in assisting us in the removal of a large slab of limestone overburden. We fondly referred to this particular slab as the "coffin stone", since it measured six feet long, two and a half feet wide, and a foot thick.
On the second day of excavation Hugh was rewarded for his interest and long days of travel to Glen Rose. He assisted in the removal of clay infill and the delicate excavation of an excellent 11½ inch human footprint under the "coffin stone". All five toes, including the dominant big toe and the weaker second toe, were intact and in their appropriate placement. Seepage water was slowly accumulating, so we tried to dig a trench around the footprint in the limestone host rock. At the time of fresh excavation the stone was so hard we could not dig a small trench with a geology pick! (See photo page 196)
By the weekend geo-physicist John DeVilbis, Ph.D., arrived and added verification to the genuineness of the "Miller track". He photographed the fossil print in situ in color, black and white, and stereo. We named the 12-inch series of human footprints (six such prints were excavated altogether) the "Sir George series" after the late Governor General of the Fiji Islands. A plaster of paris cast of the print was sent to Dr. Clifford Wilson in Australia and another is on display at the Creation Evidence Museum.
A year passed quickly. In July, 1984, Professor James Hall, M.S. of Liberty University in Lynchburg, Virginia arrived in Glen Rose. After he viewed the evidences first-hand and excavated a very good 16 inch footprint with the team, an article by Michele Prince reported: "Baugh and Hall excavated a human footprint with the big toe and smaller toes in their descending angle and the arched instep, scientifically peculiar to the human species...There is definite evidence that man and dinosaurs co-existed...The fact that these tracks were so clearly preserved in this porous substance indicated rapid burial - again, the Flood." (See photo page 156)
Monday, August 6, 1984
This was just another day in our excavation. However, to one of our workers it was very special, for he was to help excavate and to take a cast of what was clearly a human footprint close to a dinosaur print. George Detweller is a public school teacher, qualified in four areas - these being biology, geology, physics and astronomy - with a Master's degree from Ohio State University. He was excited when the infill clay was removed and there was a human footprint - as he put it, "this was under that solid foot of limestone". He made a cast of this print. (See photo page 323)
Walter Land of Bible-Science Association documented the entire procedure on videotape. This footprint was on the same ledge on which Dr. Clifford Wilson had found another footprint two years earlier - we had now removed more of the overlying limestone ledge, and any unbiased observer would have to acknowledge the genuineness of this find. Anybody setting out to fake these things simply could not do so underneath 12 inches of limestone and 4 inches of marl, with the footprint itself set solidly in the hard limestone. This particular human footprint was 8 feet from the nearest dinosaur footprint we found in the area. Others were only a few inches apart, and in at least one case the human and dinosaur footprint overlapped. We made a cast of that, and there is no doubt that it is in fact an overlap - the human footprint extends away from the dinosaur print, and the five toes can be clearly counted.32
Dinosaur Prints on the Top Stone Layer - And a Giant Skeleton
One of the most impressive finds of the whole project up to this time was a direct result of the use of the back-hoe. The work at Sites A and B was well under way. Field Supervisor Charles Hiltibidal thought that perhaps some tracks could be found underneath all the flood soil at the top of the base rock, which we have called "Locus C". He had seen a faint outline of one track where he had just been working. He talked it over with us and we readily agreed to this opening up a new locus.
Charles Hiltibidal swung into action and soon the 11 foot bank, 40 feet down-river from Site A was being removed down to the rock. The bank itself was the result of deposits from various local floods over a period of time. It.was the topsoil of the area, and of course there were no fossils in it - it was all of recent origin. It was quite different from the levels at Sites A and B where some evidences of fossilization had been found. The new Locus C was simply the top level of the limestone, with the overburden ranging from 6 to 11 feet above the top rock levels.
In a short time a level area was uncovered down to the bare rock, removing those several feet of soil overburden. Not surprisingly it was muddy, for that overburden had a considerable water content.
Suddenly the motor was stopped and Charles Hiltibidal got down from the driver's seat. He stooped down on the muddy surface, checking something with his bare hands. Then he came over to where I was talking to Associate Director, Dr. Clifford Wilson.
A Dinosaur Print on Top of the Rock
"I think there is a dinosaur print right there on top of the rock," he told us. Despite his "hunch", we still doubted such a possibility. Dinosaur tracks had not been found on this top level at any other part of the Paluxy River area - it was several feet above the river level.
We went with Charles, and as Wilson had a trowel in his hand it was his privilege to dig the clay impression from the limestone. It certainly was a dinosaur print, and, in a short time a distinct trail was found in the usual leftright, left-right pattern, stretching right across the exposed rock surface.
Dinosaur Tracks Later than Human Footprints
This was a remarkable find. No human footprints were found at that particular level - though they had been so found at Site A, literally beneath one foot of this top level of limestone. In other words, these particular dinosaur tracks appeared later than the level where human footprints were found!
At the very least this evidence indicated that dinosaurs were around in relatively recent times. Some material found within the twelve-inch limestone ledge included wood that had become carbonized. By "establishment" standards, this meant that the limestone deposit was younger than the piece of wood, for the limestone had formed around it. These last dinosaur footprints were impressed into the top of the limestone, and followed the limestone formation by a few hours at the most.
In the course of excavations a large number of scholars have contributed with experience in their fields. Many have earned Ph.D.'s.
Another who contributed his expertise was Engineering Professor Don Garret, Ph.D. He shared the excitement of being the first to see some of these tracks which had never previously been seen by human eyes. He also acknowledged that the evidence was that of catastrophic destruction.
In a recorded interview he referred to the fact that it was widely accepted that there had been at least one great catastrophe - and that even some evolutionists had come to the single-catastrophe explanation. Science Digest and Life magazines had both carried relevant articles, showing that scientists had no other real explanation as to how the dinosaurs disappeared so quickly - that there must have been some massive catastrophe on the earth. (Another relevant article is that by Dale A. Russel, in Scientific American, "The Mass Extinctions of the Late Mesozoic", Jan. 1982, [pp.58-65]:"The disappearances were the result of a catastrophic disruption of the biosphere by an extraterrestrial agency.")
We Find a Dinosaur
Partly because of the criticism I have received - I have at times asked others to give me a written report, objectively presenting the evidence they have actually seen. I have asked Connie Oliver34 for a written report on the sensational find we made about three miles upstream from the McFall property.
"On Saturday morning, August 4, 1984, Creationists made a major new discovery in the Paluxy River basin at Glen Rose, Texas - a large carnivorous dinosaur. This is the first dinosaur found in the Glen Rose area and the first dinosaur found world-wide in conjunction with dinosaur prints.
"Carl E. Baugh, director of the Creation Evidences Archaeological Excavation and the Creation Evidence Museum, made the discovery as associates George Detweller, Michael Reddick, and Al Parker were assisting him in spotchecking the Paluxy River basin for dinosaur prints. Rancher Al Parker had asked that the excavation team spot-check his property for possible dinosaur prints at the Paluxy River. During this trek along the Paluxy, Baugh spotted one flat six-inch bone in a bleached-out condition impacted in the limestone. Immediately he sent for his small excavation bag filled with equipment for excavation and photographic analysis, and excavations began within the hour.
As Baugh touched this small flat impacted bone the corner crumbled away and revealed a charred fragile fibrous contour. This was all that the director of the excavation needed to suggest that some creature had been impacted here under tremendous hydraulic fluid circumstances.
"Famed archaeologist and paleontologist Ernest Adams had spent thirty years searching the Paluxy Basin in an attempt to find a single dinosaur bone. He died without realizing the fulfillment of his dream. Dr. Wann Langston, head of the Vertebrate Paleontology Department at the University of Texas at Austin, had stated to the press that no dinosaur remains had ever been found adjacent to dinosaur tracks anywhere on earth.35 The basis for this logic was that dinosaur tracks were made in marshy areas and thus any deposition to fossilize the remains would be impossible since the remains would decompose under those circumstances. Creationists have long maintained that the vast number of fossilized remains are found impacted in stone, normally in a charred coalified condition, admitting to world-wide flood geology. This find is historic since the creature was essentially caught in his tracks under a tremendous deluge of water, clay, and limestone materials.
"The excavation team has recovered fourteen feet of vertebral column, nine claw points, two femur leg bones, and the large ilium bone exceeding 38 inches in length. The excavation site is thirty-four feet below the upper surface of the Paluxy River bluff. Famed sculptor Robert Summers assisted Baugh in the excavation and will assist in the full restoration of the creature found in his home town. Summers previously sculpted the 9-foot John Wayne statue which stands xt the International Airport in Orange County, California. Summers was the first to find one of the claw points. As he excavated this rare find, television cameras were focused on the spot where he used soft brushes in revealing the full contour of the beautiful amber and black claw point.
"Creationists are excited because small bits of carboniferous material, were caught along with the creature at the time it was impacted in stone. These bits of material can be carbon-dated and thus the standard interpretation of 110,000,000 year old dinosaur habitat in the Paluxy will be in very serious question. Creationists are confident that carbon dating of this additional impacted material will reveal a relatively young age to the entire scenario.
"Elsewhere we show that carbon dates have been given to other materials found in this general area36 and they suggest hundreds or thousands of years, but certainly not long ages by "establishment" geological reckoning -]
"During the past seventy-five years literally hundreds of dinosaur tracks have been viewed downstream from the excavation site.37 The Creation Evidences Archaeological Excavation Team has excavated 164 dinosaur tracks with fifty human tracks among them. The team has verified a few dinosaur tracks upstream from the site. This week Baugh announced that dinosaur tracks have been located within 125 feet of this burial site. Some of these tracks are quite deep with an angle inclining in the direction of the dinosaur burial point. This indicates to the excavators that the creature was laboring under advancing and surrounding amounts of clay and mud.
"One charred shark's tooth was also found at the site of the excavation. The fragile charred claw points and one intact claw shaft revealed delicate black md amber colorings and pronounced interior ridges. The compressed vertebra are in fragile but intact condition. Over 80% of the total skeletal contour has been preserved. It is a rare find indeed!
"Some of the claw points were found suspended in the clay impacting layers fourteen inches above the bony contour of the basic skeleton. These clays show definite discoloration from the oil and fats of the soft tissue of the original body. These oils and fats have penetrated some twenty-six inches above the basic skeleton and extend for some forty feet upstream. This indicates to the excavators the possibility of additional...remains at this site. The silica and calcium carbonate materials are now being sifted for additional paleontological treasures.
"Standard paleontological procedure is used in the removal of the fossil.38 The procedure takes advantage of enclosing the excavated fossil segments with tissue, with burlap covering and a cast of plaster of Paris. The individual segments are then removed to preservation and restoration facilities. (See photo page 157)
A Russian Paluxy
A startling report appeared in the Sydney Morning Herald (Australia) on page 1 of a late edition on November 21, 1983: "A report from the Soviet News agency, Tass, says that about 1500 tracks made by dinosaurs have been found in Turkmenia, but among those prints are those resembling the footprints of a man. According to Professor Amanniyazov, Director of Turkmenia's Institute of Geology, 'If further analysis proves that the prints have been left by anthropoids, the history of mankind will be extended to 150 million not 5 million years.'" At first we had serious reservations about this report, especially when we heard (in September of 1984) that the Directors of the Creation Research Foundation (in Queensland, Australia) had been unsuccessfully trying to trace the source of the report. In an issue of their journal, Ex Nihilo. they recommended caution.
However, they then were able to report (in the next issue of Ex Nihilo) that the account was authentic, having been published in Moscow News, No. 24, 1983, on p.10. Moscow News is an official Moscow paper in English, partly for overseas personnel.
We ourselves were also able to do some tracking, and came up with a much more elaborate report, as follows: TRACKING DINOSAURS (Cr. V. Rubstsov) Moscow News, No. 24, p. 10, 1983. "This spring, an expedition from the Institute of Geology of the Turkmen SSR Academy of Sciences found over 1,500 tracks left by dinosaurs in the mountains in the south-east of the Republic. Impressions resembling in shape a human footprint were discovered next to the tracks of the prehistoric animals. Our correspondent Alexander Romashko reports:
'I stood only a step away from a smooth clearing receding up the slope. I stepped forward and found myself in the Mesozoic era, i.e., nearly 150 million years in the past. A chain of dinosaur tracks started at my feet. It looked as if the huge prehistoric beasts passed by here very recently, leaving imprints of massive paws every 1.5 meters.
"Paleontologists explained to me later on that with this long stride, the reptiles had to be 8-12 meters tall. All of a sudden we saw, next to the three-fingered track of a dinosaur, a not-very-clear but quite discernable track looking very much like a human footprint. Anyway, all those who saw it first thought so. Since I am no scholar, I ventured to come forth with an assumption: 'Who knows but maybe our very far removed ancestors did mingle with dinosaurs?'
"'Science might possibly answer that in the affirmative sometime in the future', said Professor Kurban Amanniyazov, head of the expedition, Corresponding Member of the Turkmen SSR Academy of Sciences, director of the Institute of Geology'. However, at present we don't have enough grounds to say this. We've imprints resembling human footprints, but to date have failed to determine, with any scientific veracity, whom they belong to, after all. Of course, if we could prove that they do belong to a humanoid, then it would create a revolution in the science of man. Humanity would 'grow older' thirty-fold and its history would be at least 150 millions years long."
The report goes on to mention that dinosaur tracks have been discovered in the Americas, in Europe, in Africa, as well as in Georgia and Uzbekistan of Russia. The area where these present footprints have been found is in Southeast Turkmenia, not far from the Khodzha-pil-ata village.
A Report to Natural History Magazine
Geophysicist John DeVilbis, Ph.D., drove up from Houston, Texas, on October 23, 1986. Our team had found what appeared to be the posterior section of a footprint, and stone and clay still secluded whatever the front portion of the print might reveal. John and I removed the limestone overburden, He delicately excavated through the clay and found the ball of the foot and five toes. I said, "John, I am speaking at a banquet in Oklahoma City tomorrow night. I'm going to quote you. In your professional opinion, what have we excavated?" John replied, "There is no question, it is a 16 inch human footprint"
On November 18, 1986 John wrote the Correspondence Editor of Natural History Magazine and reported in writing, "Recently I have excavated an elongated footprint showing five human-like toes at the anterior. It was adjacent to a dinosaur footprint."
The Excavations Continue in 1987
Our 1987 excavations began on January 1st with educator Wynn Laidig, Ph.D., and field documentarian Mike Reddick on hand. By Monday evening, January 5th, University of Illinois professor Marlyn Clark, M.S., arrived for his seventh trip to Glen Rose. Professor Clark is a fluid hydraulicist and lectures on both sides of the Iron Curtain on "The Fluid Mechanism of the Human Cardiovascular System". He is also retiring chairman of the American Society of Civil Engineers.
Assisting Professor Clark and myself at key intervals were Ronald Jenkins, Randy Jenkins, and Charles Hiltibidal. We removed limestone and clay infill, delicately revealing dinosaur prints and two good human footprints with all unique human distinctions in place. Professor Clark watched and participated at close range as we used toothpicks to remove the clay from the toe depressions. (See photo pages 229-231)
The Press arrived. Reporter Anita Baker of the Port Worth Star-Telegram asked Professor Clark, 'What are those depressions among the dinosaur prints?" Professor Clark quietly stated, "Those are human footprints."
Reporter Mark Schumacker of Dallas Channel 5 KXAS-TV flew down by helicopter. That evening on the news he showed excellent footage with all five of the human toe prints clearly visible. The news commentator's lead sentence was, "Mark Schumacker reports on a scientist's potentially history-changing discovery rt Glen Rose..."
In a front page article in the Somervelle Sun editor Dub Dean reported on January 16, 1987, "Dr. Baugh showed a fiberglass set of prints authenticated as being prehistoric man tracks...by anthropologist Mary Leakey. It was totally evident when viewed side by side with Dr. Baugh's man prints that his ("Clark") print was more easily recognized as human."
Archaeologist Wilbur Fields39 examined the new evidence on Saturday, March 7, 1987. With a leading humanist present, Professor Fields looked at the 14-inch "Clark" print and said, "This is a human footprint!"
Evolutionary skeptics have actually set their own stage for the importance of the Paluxy River evidences. On the evening of March 16, 1984, Dr. Duane Gish and Dr. Ernst Mayer debated in Evansville, Indiana. In that debate Dr. Mayer, the evolutionist, said, "creationists have stated that humans and dinosaurs were contemporaries in time...Were this momentous statement true the names of its discoverers would thunder down the corridors of time as individuals who made one of the most outstanding discoveries of the twentieth century."
In 1983 D.H. Milne and S. Schafersman wrote in Journal of Geological Education (p.lll) about the reports of finding human prints and dinosaur prints together. They stated: "Such an occurrence would seriously disrupt conventional interpretations of biological and geological history and would support the doctrines of creationism and catastrophism."
In this dissertation we demonstrate that humans and dinosaurs were indeed "contemporaries in time". The importance of these discoveries will, no doubt, be increasingly recognized as this researcher and others continue to uncover evidence that the findings are all that is claimed in this presentation.